Chinese Remigrate: Laundrymen Example

Chinese immigrants entered the United States at major ports from the mid 19th to mid 20th century and many found work nearby.  However, it must be recognized that they were often “transient” and moved one or more times to other regions of the country, sometimes to join a family member or friend who offered them work. In other instances, the work they were doing ended and they had to migrate in search of new work opportunities. Some fled racism and violent threats to their lives as in Tacoma, Washington, Eureka, California, Truckee, California, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, to cite a few of the more extreme large-scale instances in the late 1880s.

One example is described in an 1880 newspaper account of the arrival of C. P. Canton and C. Jack, described oddly as “two veritable Chinese” visiting Knoxville, Tennessee, where they might have been the first Chinese ever seen in this town.

1880 2 veritable chinese arrive knoxville1

Coming from Columbus, Ohio, these Chinese came to assess the prospect of opening a laundry in Knoxville. They probably wanted to assess the size of the population and how many laundries they would have to compete with for business.

A check of the City Directory for the 1880s, however,  does not show they opened a laundry in Knoxville. Perhaps they found a more promising town, or simply returned to Columbus where they might have already been running a laundry although it was not listed in the Columbus City Directory.

There is evidence that a few years later other Chinese came to open laundries in Knoxville. It is not known when Hong Lee opened his laundry on Gay Street but it was not a success as it was put up for auction in 1884.

1884 auction hong lee's laundry on gay st..jpg

Chung Wo who ran a laundry on Clinch Street had a dispute with Lee Shoo in 1891 that got out of control.  A violent exchange between what the reporter called “two almond-eyed celestials,” occurred in which Chung Wo wielded a hatchet and Lee Shoo countered with a knife in one hand and a pistol in the other. Shoo fired at but missed Wo. Both men were apprehended and arrested after the fracas.

1891 2 laundryman shoot out knoxville

Two Chinese laundrymen, described as “two celestial pigtails,” were targets of some local boys looking to make life miserable for them. The newspaper reported that some “bad boys” tossed a big firecracker into a  laundry on Clinch Street, where Chung Wo’s laundry was located. This incident was probably not the first nor the last of its kind or worse that Chinese had to suffer in Knoxville and many other communities.

Another Chinese, Wah Lee opened a laundry in Knoxville. in 1890 on Gay Street. There is no evide4nce but it might have been at the site of Hong Lee’s Gay Street laundry that was auctioned off in 1884.

1890 wah lee ldy ad att241 gay st knoxville.png

Wah Lee proved to be a better Knoxville citizen than Lee Shoo and Chung Wo, the combatants cited earlier. The local paper applauded his flag flying patriotism in 1889.

1889 wah lee of gay st knox very patriotic flying flag.png

Hop Sing in 1895 opened the only other Chinese laundry in Knoxville during the 1890s.1895 hop sing 201 vine knoxville.png

Other nearby towns such as Athens, Tennessee, began to have Chinese laundries as a newspaper report in 1899 indicated.

1899 athens to have laubdry 60 miles from knoxv.jpg



Laundry for Sale, Includes Wife

Chinese all over the country would sell and buy laundries from other Chinese for many different reasons, but a most unusual offer of a laundry offered for sale stipulated that the buyer would also acquirer the wife of the seller!

1907 3.8 divorce chin woman at britt divor from hus In 1907, Fong Tin, a laundryman in Britt, Iowa, put his laundry for sale and made the rather unusual inclusion of his wife, May Pond, as part of the deal. His wife thought otherwise and objected strenuously.  The townspeople took her side and berated the hapless Fong Tin who fled the town.

Mrs. Tin Fong t sued for divorce, which was granted. Then she became possibly the first Chinese “laundrywoman” in the country/

may pond fong stem laundru opens

Thanks to Professor Emeritus Dan Kaiser of Grinnell College for calling my attention to this unusual story.

Chinese Begin Move From Laundry to Restaurant Business

Operating hand laundries were one of the few occupations available to Chinese immigrants in the mid to late 19th century. They came to dominate the laundry business, as described in a 1907 news article, until the early 20th century when white-owned steam laundries began to operate.

1907 newspaper describes the widespread presence of Chinese laundries in Brooklyn.


In the 1920s demand for Chinese hand laundry services began to decline with increased competition from white steam laundries. Although some Chinese hand laundries competed by adding steam-driven equipment,  there was growing recognition that there were better opportunities in the restaurant business. Up until the end of the 1890s, Chinese food was unfamiliar to whites. Furthermore, food critics, as well as racists, disparaged the food served in Chinese restaurants. Chinese restaurants were not popular with whites because they did not create “Americanized” dishes initially but served authentic foods popular with Chinese immigrants.

That situation was to change at the end of the 19th century. In 1896 Li Hung Chang, Viceroy from China, was on a diplomatic visit to the U.S. On one occasion he ate at a Chinese restaurant and ate a Chinese dish that was unfamiliar to the news reporters who were covering the Viceroy’s visit. The national press coverage of his positive comments about this ‘new’ dish, chop suey, generated widespread curiosity and interest among the urban “foodies” of the day and they went “slumming” in groups to try it in Chinatowns in New York and other urban areas.

This 1921 drawing in the New York Times depicts the transition from laundries to restaurants starting in the 1920s, but Chinese laundries took several decades before they became virtually nonexistent.

Life in A Chinese Laundry in Tong Wars Era

During the 1920s, battles between rival Chinese tongs often led to attacks with guns, hatchets, and other weapons in major Chinatowns and nearby small towns where Chinese tong members worked as merchants, restaurant workers, and laundrymen.

One day the Hartford, Connecticut newspaper in 1924 devoted the entire front page to reporting on this situation, focusing on the negative impact tong wars had on the lives of one local  Chinese laundryman and his family. It was sympathetic to their plight and tried to present the Chinese family as similar in its concerns and goals as those of a white family.

The laundryman, worried that he might be a victim of a tong hit man, is afraid so he arranges his store to allow customers to leave and pick up their laundry in an antroom to afford him more protection.

Arrangement in laundry designed to protect the laundryman from attack by a tong man.
The young daughters of this laundryman in his store were shy but warmed up to the photographer, but their father would not let his face be photographed.

Lives of Chinese in Grinnell, Iowa, c. 1900 Similar to Other Small Towns Across the U.S.

Until the last quarter of the 19th century, there were few Chinese in the middle of the United States.  This situation began to change after 1869 with the completion of the transcontinental railroad at Promontory, Utah. Suddenly out of work, thousands of Chinese laborers had to find their way back to the west coast or find work in small towns in the regions bordering Utah.

Hand laundries were the new primary occupation for Chinese because it required little capital, little training, and at least initially little opposition from white-owned laundries. Once a Chinese opened a laundry, he would need at least one helper, usually a male relative or other Chinese. He might recruit brothers, cousins, fathers, or sons from other parts of the U.S. or from China. If business was not good, he might move to another town.

Chinese laundrymen led lonely and difficult lives of long hours of physical labor. They often were mocked or worse, assaulted, robbed, and even killed. They were mainly bachelors, or had wives who remained in China. Since sexual relationships between Chinese men and white women violated the norms and social values, the Chinese remained unmarried and without children or became involved secretly with white or black women.

An excellent illustration of the process of Chinese laundries originating and growing in small-town America is a historical study of Chinese laundries in Grinnell, Iowa, conducted by Dan Kaiser, a retired history professor at Grinnell College.


1898 Sanborn Map of Grinnell, west side of Main Street, showing 915 and 927 where Grinnell’s first Chinese laundries operated (the former street numbers appear above)

Kaiser gives interesting details about Kim Fong, the third Chinese to open a laundry in Grinnell.

“Kim Fong (1865?- ), the third Chinese to conduct business in Grinnell, was not yet living in Grinnell in 1910, because that year’s census does not include him. By late 1912 Fong was living in Toledo where he had opened a laundry in the basement of the “Infirmary.” At that time Toledo could boast fewer than 2000 residents, whereas Grinnell had a population of more than 5000, which probably explains why in summer 1913 Fong moved to Grinnell.

Toledo Chronicle, August 7, 1913

Said to be 50 years old in 1915, Fong reported having been born in China around 1865. Described as “yellow” by census officials, Fong claimed the ability to both read and write, although he probably meant that he was literate in his native language rather than English—a 1917 newspaper article remarked that Fong had to communicate mainly by signs as he did not speak English (Grinnell Register, August 27, 1917). Like many of his countrymen who operated laundries in Iowa, Fong was married, but lived alone, his wife presumably left behind in China.

Fong did develop some connections in Grinnell, as a 1917 newspaper report indicates. According to the Grinnell Register, in late August 1917 Fong hosted “several friends at a magnificent dinner” at “his home and place of business…under the Annex hotel” (August 27, 1917). The occasion was the arrival in town of Fong Soon, a nephew who, Fong said, would soon begin school in Grinnell. It seems unlikely that Fong Soon did begin school here, however, for I found no other evidence of this young man’s sojourn in Grinnell.

Marshalltown Evening Times-Republican, February 3, 1915

One unique or unusual aspect of Kim Fong’s relationship with the community is his invitation to several influential whites to a banquet dinner, described below in superlative terms.  However, one wonders who knew how to prepare birds’ nest soup and whether Grinnell guests might be willing to taste it!

Headline to article in Grinnell Register, August 27, 1917

The evening’s menu included, the newspaper announced, birds’ nest soup, chicken chop suey, “and other Chinese meat dishes foreign to the English language.” Rice, “cooked only as the Chinaman can prepare it,” was also on order, as were “fruits and nuts from far away China, tea of the richest flavor,” all topped off with American cakes.  How the guests learned this much is a mystery, because “Although in this country for seventeen years, Mr. Fong speaks little English and it was necessary that he make himself understood…wholly through the sign language.” Fong’s newly-arrived nephew was no help: he “speaks no English.”

Advertisement in Scarlet and Black, October 15, 1913

Like most of his fellow Chinese laundrymen, Fong resided within his business quarters. No photograph of his premises survives, but it is likely that his laundry was organized in a way that mimicked his fellow Chinese laundry operators. A counter close to the door provided entrance for customers and a place to receive and dispense the laundry, and behind that the workspaces necessary for washing and pressing the laundry. A modest bunk and kitchen would have occupied the rear of the space, and might—or might not—have been made private with a curtain (Jung, Chinese Laundries, p. 132; Paul C. P. Siu, The Chinese Laundryman [NY: New York University Press, 1987], pp. 56-68).

Fong seems to have left no other footprint in the town’s records until early 1920 when owners of the Monroe Hotel Annex announced that they would undertake a serious remodeling, obliging Kim Fong either to move or close his laundry. In a boxed advertisement in the Grinnell Herald, Fong reported that he was closing his business “forever,” and advised customers to hasten to collect their laundry.
He added that he was going to open a chop suey restaurant after he closed his laundry and that he was selling his stock of soap chips from his laundry.
grinnell iow laundry into cafel kim fong .jpggrinnell to get chop suery rest in pl of ldy kim fong

 After the development of steam laundry machines around 1900, the hand-laundry business in America came under increasing pressure. Able to deal with larger quantities of laundry and turn it around faster, the steam laundries could under-price the hand laundries, even if their service was harder on garments. Moreover, associations of power laundry operators attempted to drive their Chinese competitors out of business, arguing for special taxes, restrictions on working hours, and by publicly accusing the Chinese laundries of unhygienic conditions (Jung, Chinese Laundries, pp. 75-89).

Des Moines Register, March 24, 1920

I found nothing quite so boldly racist in Grinnell, but the belittling of Chinese was certainly present. For example, when the Scarlet and Black (March 20, 1920) published Fong’s announcement about quitting his business, the newspaper could not resist adding an aside that made fun of Chinese pronunciation: “Ketchee allee same China-In-Grinnell Leview of Leviews, eh Kim?” Elsewhere Chinese laundrymen encountered assaults, robberies, and other violence that depended upon racist values. Fong Lee, who operated a laundry in Williamsburg, had to fight off a customer who tried to retrieve his laundry without paying, threatening Lee with the lead end of his cane. When Lee pointed a pistol at the man, “the intruder left without his linen” (Ottumwa Weekly Courier, May 27, 1902). In 1923 Nevada, Jim Fong and his family endured firecrackers thrown into their laundry (Nevada Evening Journal, June 20, 1923, p.3). Worse things happened elsewhere.

English-Chinese Phrases for Chinese Laundrymen

Chinese immigrants from the last quarter of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century operated laundries throughout the U.S. and Canada. The popularity of this business among early Chinese was due to several factors. Racial discrimination prevented Chinese from entering many occupations and businesses. The small amount of capital required to start, the low operating expenses, and the ability to function with minimal English language fluency also contributed to the growth of Chinese laundries. On this last issue, several English-Chinese phrasebooks were available as early as the 1880s that covered practical topics of everyday communication including phrases use in obtaining or transferring a store lease.

Other phrases were included for situations where laundrymen had to communicate with customers about their laundry procedures, operation, and ordering laundry supplies.

Perhaps the bane of every laundryman’s existence was the “lost ticket'” which was such a common event that it popularized the mocking, “No tickee, no shirtee.” expression. To locate a customer’s laundry without a ticket was like searching for the proverbial “needle in a haystack,” requiring time lost from work in unwrapping and rewrapping parcels until the customer’s clothes were located. Furthermore, the laundryman had to trust the customer because he was liable if the claimed clothes really belonged to a different customer.

Guess Who Did The Laundry Aboard Ships of the Royal Navy

When you think about large naval vessels carrying hundreds of crew for many weeks on the high seas, probably you never thought about how much dirty clothing and bedding needs to be washed and pressed. In addition to having batteries of guns, a battleship had to have washing machines and dryers! And who was selected to do the laundry work?

Believe it or not, but sometime in the 1950s and 1960s, ships of the Royal Navy of Great Britain going between U. K. and Hong Kong had two or more CHINESE LAUNDRYMEN! No, they were not Chinese sailors in the U.K.Navy. They were contracted labor obtained in Hong Kong, and they earned a living by charging sailors for doing their laundry!

In fact, one Chinese did laundry on a Royal Navy ship for 53 years before retiring.

After ironing more than an estimated three million shirts and surviving a bomb attack, the British Royal Navy’s longest serving Hong Kong laundryman plans to return home to retire.
Chick Shun-chui, 72, is heading to the SAR after a 53-year career in the navy, the Ministry of Defence announced this week

Chief of the Navy Rear Admiral Jack Steer helps farewell Shiu Hang Che in 2014.

An informative blog by Godfrey Dykes gives rich historical detail of how the Chinese laundry was created and operated on battleships.

“In approximately 1950/51 (certainly during the early part of the Korean War) the Admiralty ordered that spaces should be made available in HM Ships to be assigned and dedicated as permanent LAUNDRIES – HMS Tyne was also the Flagship for the Korean War.  Laundry machinery was designed or procured from well known manufacturers and for the first time in naval history, a laundry school was established at Devonport in HMS Drake. The whole process of washing, ironing and starching clothes which started from pragmatic experience very soon became a science and led to the appointment of the Laundry Officer. ”

On his blog post, Dykes includes copies of a detailed 20 page Laundry Manual as well as other documents describing equipment in the laundry.

From the Table of Contents, you can see that some serious thought to every detail was made.

If a Chinese had to know this much about running his on laundry on land, he would have gone into some other work! At the bottom of his post, Dykes lists these other documents.

LAUNDRY MANUAL INTRO ADMIN AND ORG.pdfWashing machines in HM Ships and Fleet Shore Barracks.pdfMaterials used in RN Laundries [Soap, bleach etc].pdfRN Laundries – The Washing Process.pdf
RN Laundries – Drying Equipments.pdfRN Laundries – Flat Ironing Machinery.pdfRN Laundries – Presses and Pressing.pdfRN Laundries – Collar and Dress Shirt Processing.pdf
RN Laundries – Racking & Packing Processed Articles.pdfRN Laundries – Decontamination of Clothing & Equipment.pdfRN Laundries – Appendix and Work Routines.pdf

in a postscript, recognition of the lack of recognition of the contribution of the Chinese laundrymen to the Royal Navy is given.


Parliament UK

Early day motion 290

Main content


  • Session: 1997-98
  • Date tabled: 23.07.1997
  • Primary sponsor: Hancock, Mike


That this House notes with concern that loyal Chinese laundry workers who have been serving the Royal Navy for decades face having to accept draconian and appalling changes to their contracts of employment; condemns the ruthless way the laundry workers have been faced with the sack unless they accept the new contracts by Guernsey Ship Management Ltd.; and notes that if dismissed the workers would have to return to communist-controlled Hong Kong with no rights to stay in the United Kingdom despite their long service.

Should I Be Flattered?

I stumbled upon a cute image related to Chinese laundries accompanied by the well-worn expression associated with the business, “no tickee, no shirtee.”

medium plaig

As I read the accompanying text, I felt a sense of familiarity, and thought, wow, this writer certainly is good!


I reread the text and suddenly I got the feeling that these views were very much like my own! I googled several sentences and discovered that indeed I had written these exact words onMarch 10, 2011 on my Chinese Laundry blog!

Did Chinese “Create” the Laundry Business

Before the last half of the 19th century, most people throughout the world washed and ironed their own laundry, or had that chore done by domestic servants who also cooked meals and took care of young children.  Chinese immigrants in the U.S., and many other countries, may have “created” the laundry business. This occupation was not one that Chinese immigrant men practiced back in China where, as throughout the world, laundry was relegated to women.  Despite the unfamiliar, and probably humbling and humiliating, nature of this occupation, Chinese men turned to it out of necessity because racial discrimination closed them out of other occupations.


Chinese came to dominate the hand laundry business for decades in the last half of the 19th century before the rise of steam laundries operated by whites. However, opposition to Chinese laundrymen came from two groups that were involved as domestics doing laundry for households, Irish and black washerwomen.

Irish washerwomen Versus Chinese laundrymen

In many eastern cities, Irish washerwomen supported their families by taking in household laundry, often because their husbands were unemployed. The growth of Chinese laundries was a threat, as illustrated by an 1879 play by Josh Hart.


The play, Ching Wing and His Laundry, described as a comedy, highlights the threat  posed by Chinese laundries to the livelihoods of Irish washerwomen.  In the opening scene of the short play, Mrs. H, an Irish washer woman, laments the loss of washing customers who gave their washing to the heathen Chinese like Ching Wing, who charged lower prices.

In the opening scene, Ching Wing is carrying a large bundle of clothing to be washed in his laundry, so he does not see the Irish washerwoman and accidentally bumps into her, knocking her down. Chin Wing attempts a lame apology which Mrs. H rejects,  “…ye are a disgrace to human nature.”

The next scene is in an Irish laundry where two Irish women complain about the loss of washing to the Chinese. “Oh it was a sad day when the monkeys left their native country and settled here.”

In the closing scene a woman customer of the Chinese laundry has summoned a policeman because the dog she brought with her to the laundry has disappeared.  She claimed that she found her dog’s skin here and “these nasty chinamen eating my dog.”

The policeman and the woman leave to get a warrant. Immediately, “All the Chinamen eat from bowls very quick…. Ching goes up and blows water over clothes and begins to iron…

The Irish return in numbers and a brawl breaks out between them and the Chinese laundrymen.

Black washerwomen Versus Chinese laundrymen

 Conflict developed between black washerwomen and the growing  number of Chinese laundrymen by the 1870s.  In Galveston, Texas, black washerwomen protested against the Chinese saying they had “no business coming here taking work away from us.” One woman threatened, “Mr. Slam Sling Chinaman you better sling your shirt short because we mean what we say…”

blk washerw.jpg

In Lapeer, Michigan, a Chinese laundryman was given three days by black washerwomen to leave town.  They threatened to cut off his queue unless he complied.  When a Chinese laundryman showed up in Albany, Georgia, in 1899 he received death threats from black washerwomen unless he left town. Eventually these conflicts died down, in part because the Chinese laundries focused on men’s work clothes while black washerwomen dealt with washing family and household items.

White steam laundries Versus Chinese laundries

As the nation moved from an agrarian to an urban society in the last half of the 19th century, demand for laundry services increased and gave rise to more commercial laundries.

Chinese hand laundries relied on manual labor to wash and iron clothes.  Irons were heavy, 8 1/2 pounds of iron, that had to be heated periodically over hot coals to a temperature that was not too hot to avoid scorching the clothes.  As the temperature dropped, the irons had to be reheated after a short period before they could be effective.

Compared to the volume of work that could be accomplished with modern steam-driven pressing machines, the Chinese laundries were at a decided disadvantage. Yet, some customers still preferred the Chinese hand laundry because they felt that their clothes were more likely to be damaged by the machinery of the large white-owned laundries or they did not like the idea that their clothes would be co-mingled with those of other customers in large washing machinery.

Eventually many Chinese laundries upgraded their equipment and acquired steam driven pressing machines.  Apparently, some manufacturers of steam laundry equipment were reluctant to sell to Chinese laundrymen who would be taking business away from white-owned laundries.  In a 1892 article that appeared in papers around the country,  an effort was made to prevent Chinese from acquiring steam driven equipment with the admonition by one manufacturer that purchasers of steam machines must promise never to allow them to “fall into the hands of the Chinese competitor.”

By the end of the 19th century, white steam laundry operators intensified their efforts to destroy all Chinese laundries. This goal is illustrated in several examples of the use of advertising that directly attacked the Chinese laundries. The above 1907 advertisement for Jet White Steam Laundry in Charleston, South Carolina, simply urges the avoidance of Chinese laundry in favor of  the Jet White laundry which claims to be “the Best.”

A 1915 Dothan, Alabama, white laundry went even further to oppose Chinese laundries. It used a no holds barred advertising campaign with images depicting Chinese laundrymen smoking opium and sleeping and eating in the laundry. The text of the ad below poses questions about whether customers want to have their laundry done in a Chinese laundry where eating and sleeping occurs in the same room as the clothes washing is done.  A concern is also raised over the fact that  the Chinese send most of the money they earn back to China rather than spending it locally.

White and Chinese laundry kids learn from each other

Not many people, aside from Chinese friends and relatives, get to go beyond the front counter of a Chinese laundry into the work space or crowded living quarters usually found in the back or upstairs above the laundry. If they did, they might be surprised, as was true for a white school boy who many decades later wrote on his blog about his memories of his invitation by a Chinese girl, Mae, to join her family for dinner one evening. It was a valuable experience as he learned to appreciate or understand how people different from himself live.

In his 2010 blog post, David Farside wrote about the Chinese laundry down the street from where he lived, noting that:

“As kids we always joked about how they slaughtered the English language, how they dressed, their diet and how many of them lived huddled together in back of the sweat shop.”

He had invited a daughter of the Chinese family with whom he enjoyed a friendship to his 8th birthday party. Mae did not bring a present as all the other kids did, which he assumed was because her family was poor, but instead she gave David a written note at the end of the party inviting him to dinner with her family that evening in the laundry.

His mother was unsure whether it was safe for him to go, but David insisted on going. At the laundry he was greeted and led “through the maze of hanging clothes, ironing mangles and washboards to the back of the shop.”

In the back yard, he saw a shack that was “Covered entirely with sheets of corrugated metal, it appeared to be an old garage for auto repairs.”  Upon entering the shack he found: “The whole family was seated on the floor around a huge teak circular lazy susan covered with food. They all sang a Chinese happy birthday song and I sat at the seat of honor for the feast. I couldn’t tell what I was eating, except for the rice. But after 65 years I can still taste the delicacies I shared that day.”

After the meal, David recalled enjoying cultural activities and entertainment that were unfamiliar but captivated him.  He recalled going home and telling his  father he would never have guessed the Chinese possessed so much wealth, education, skills and kindness. His father listened for awhile and said, “David, things are never what they appear and I hope you always remember what you learned tonight at the Chinese laundry.”

Farside concluded: I learned about art, aesthetics, mysticism and the true meaning of life.  So dad, wherever you are, I always remembered my best birthday gift of all. I remember what you taught me and what I learned that night at the Chinese laundry.

David’s reminiscence was touching and illustrates how close personal interactions can correct misconceptions we might have about people from other backgrounds.

Here is a link to David Farside’s 2010 blog if you want to read the entire post.      

Unfortunately, we didn’t get a chance to see what Mae learned about white people from her interactions with David as there surely must have been some surprises for her as well.

As an example of what a Chinese laundry kid could learn from personal contact with a white classmate, I can share my own experience with Richard, a Jewish schoolmate who was my best friend in grammar school.  Richard and I often walked home together as we both lived toward the business district of Macon, Georgia, whereas all the other kids in our class lived in the opposite direction. Richard and I would sometimes go inside his family’s apartment, which was the first, and only, white residence I ever visited while growing up.  His parents were both business people and their apartment was very nicely furnished, unlike the living space above our family laundry which was just two storage rooms with a sink with only cold running water but no toilet. We had dilapidated beds, several wood chairs, one table, to double as a dining table and a place to do homework, and sevral apple crates repurposed to serve as nightstands, storage spaces, and bookcases. As Richard’s parents were well-to-do, Richard had many nice toys, especially his Lionel electric trains, which I envied as I could only afford inexpensive wind-up trains by Marx.

Richard also had a black “nanny” who cooked meals, cleaned the apartment, and supervised Richard until his parents came home. Even though it was only about two blocks from Richard’s apartment to our laundry, his parents would often insist on giving me a ride home if they were headed in that direction.  Since we never had a car, it was a real treat to ride in a nice car even if only for two blocks!

Had it not been for my friendship with Richard, I would have never seen the inside of the home of any white classmate.   I had no real idea of the furnishings and arrangements inside a home other than from looking at furniture store window displays of dining, living room, and bedroom furniture although  I had a vague idea from some movies that had some scenes inside homes.

So, just as David Farside made discoveries of how Chinese laundry families lived from his visit to Mae’s laundry, I learned much about the American living space from my visits to Richard’s apartment.