Chinese laundrymen faced racial discrimination all over the United States, but individual laundrymen lacked the ability, time, and resources to mount any meaningful opposition. A notable exception was in New York City where several thousand Chinese laundrymen formed the Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance in 1933 to fight efforts led by white laundries to require citizenship as well as a hefty license fee for Chinese to operate a laundry. The dominant existing Chinese community organization, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association was ineffective in countering these moves so laundrymen formed this grassroots organization to fight for the survival of Chinese laundries in New York City . It also rallied financial and political support of China in its struggle against Japanese invasion of China in the early 1930s that led eventually to World War II. When Communist China rose to power in 1949, the organization, with its leftist leanings, was suspected to be subversive, leading to FBI investigation, harassment, and accusation of many Chinese in the organization.
A contemporary social activist in New York, Betty Yu, created a documentary, Discovering My Grandfather Through Mao, that describes how the Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance came into existence to fight the social injustices Chinese laundrymen in New York City faced during the Great Depression. The film skillfully and artistically blends Yu’s personal quest to discover details of the life of her grandfather who was active in the organization with a depiction of the social and historical context that limited most early Chinese immigrants in the United States and Canada to work in the laundry business.